Since the 1980s, relations within East Asia have been hit on several occasions by controversies surrounding Japanese history textbooks. In Korea it is seen as the tip of an iceberg concealing a wider problem of an “erroneous” view of history that in reality affects all Japanese textbooks to varying degrees. But above all, “they helped to develop Japanese culture, to the extent that even after their departure, Korean culture and customs spread throughout Japan”. ), Kankoku, Kita chōsen no uso o miyaburu: kingendai‑shi no sōten 30 韓国・北朝鮮の嘘を見破る―近現代史の争点３０ (The Lies of South and North Korea Revealed: Thirty Contentious Issues in Modern and Contemporary History), Tokyo, Bungei Shunjū 文藝春秋, 2006, p. 292. This sensitive issue is now one of the main symbols of Japanese aggression in Korea. to the education boards or deliberation councils, with no guarantee that they will be taken into consideration. 10One of the problems with this procedure lies in the appointment of examiners, whose report is often a key element in the decision made by the Authorisation Council. Our purpose is not to delve into that textbook but to examine both the reactions it sparked in South Korea, where it was deemed to be the tip of the iceberg of a wider problem affecting all Japanese history textbooks, and the response that supporters of the revisionist textbook gave to South Korean criticisms. And yet, as Nohira Shunsui has pointed out, the legitimacy of Korea’s criticisms over the shortcomings of Japanese textbooks does not mean that the historical consciousness of the Koreans is above reproach.11, 6While the Japanese government has never officially criticised Korean textbooks, voices close to the Tsukuru‑kai have not failed to identify certain problematic aspects, including an overly nationalistic perspective12 and a simplistic portrayal of Japan, which is described essentially as an aggressor or a diligent student that absorbed Korea’s “advanced” culture over hundreds of years.13, 7These polemical books no doubt serve as a reminder that in this controversy the criticisms are not unilateral: often accused of fanning the flames of “anti‑Japanese” sentiment,14 history education in Korea is also a source of legitimate concern in Japan. These establishments account for less than 10% of Japanese junior high school students. 1, 2004, p. 32. 83 In 451, Sei of the Wa is said to have obtained Chinese recognition of his role as protector of the Mimana region. This perception of Japan‑Korea relations is coupled with a “national frustration” with the former coloniser. ), in Hanguk kwa Ilbon: waegok kwa…, vol. ), Mundap ŭro ingnŭn Ilbon kyogwasŏ yŏksa waegok 문답으로 읽는 일본 교과서 역사왜곡 (Questions and Answers on the Distortion of History by Japanese Textbooks), Seoul, Yŏksa Pip’yŏngsa 역사 비평사, 2001, p. 123. , the Koreans owe their liberation to the military intervention of the Allies. 58Although the Japanese government officially rejected the majority of Korea’s demands, Japanese textbook writers, including those of the Tsukuru‑kai text, have nonetheless visibly made a number of modifications in line with Korea’s remarks. Firstly, the lack of explanation concerning Ieyasu’s reasons for establishing diplomatic relations with Korea. In the Japanese embassy set up in Pusan, Korea, silver and bronze were exported while cotton, Korean ginseng and raw silk were imported. This system thus gives the Ministry of Education considerable control over the content of textbooks prior to publication. 29 Atarashii shakai, Rekishi 新しい社会 歴史 (New Society, History), Tōkyō Shoseki, 2006, p. 160; Rekishiteki bun’ya 歴史的分野 (The Historical Domain), Ōsaka Shoseki, 2006, p. 160. On this subject see the article and translation by Vincent. Furthermore, a “Japanese embassy”. In 1965, Japanese historian Saburo Ienaga filed a lawsuit against the Japanese education ministry's rejection of his New Japanese History. Beyond the mutual charges of “distorting” history, the comparative analysis of the controversial issues … In the second edition the term “consumed” was replaced by the following phrase: “Hideyoshi came to nurture an excessive desire to…” [motsu ni itatta 持つにいたった] (p. 97). 43 The term “shinryaku” is also used by the Ōsaka Shoseki (p. 91) and Kyōiku Shuppan (p. 79) textbooks. Fujioka and his Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform say most textbooks are "masochistic" and only teach about Japan in negative light. I would like to thank Lionel Babicz for bringing this issue to my attention. This paper deals with the history textbook crisis of 2001 following the authorization of the revisionist textbook from the Society for History Textbook Reform. The current edition of the book covers Japan’s historical timeline from 1989 to 2008 and includes a brand-new chapter that analyzes some of the recent national problems fac… Consequently, of the three kingdoms this was the one to have the greatest influence on Japanese culture. Rarer are those, on the other hand, that specify in what way Japan’s diplomatic letter was “insolent”, namely its use of the character “hwang”, to refer to the Japanese emperor, which officially placed him above the Korean “wang”, Han‑Il kwan’gye 2 ch’ŏn nyŏn (kŭn hyŏndae), Some Korean historians are more radical and reject any causal link between Korea’s refusal to “open up” and the. It forcibly recruited Koreans to work in harsh conditions in mines and factories, and set up a system for conscripting and mobilising students as voluntary soldiers [chiwŏnbyŏng 志願兵]. In 1974, Pak Chŏnghŭi, instigator of the 1961 military coup and South Korea’s president from 1963 to 1979, decided to tighten the state’s control of education. ” (Japan, China, Korea: Towards a Shared Historical Consciousness? The previous edition (2001) of the Korean history textbook presented the three kingdoms’ foreign relations as follows: Paekche enjoyed close relations with Japan. In China, where the historical dispute with Japan also has deep roots, Sino‑Japanese relations are generally considered to have been good, or even excellent, for the majority of history and that it was only with the Meiji Restoration and the emergence of a militarist Japan that this friendship gave way to animosity on the one side and contempt on the other. (17 January 2008). An illustrative example of this tendency of the Tsukuru‑kai textbook is its description of the 1910 annexation of Korea: he underlined passage was removed from the sec, The Japanese government saw the annexation of Korea as vital to protect Japanese security and defend its interests in Manchuria. A joint working committee has recently been formed by the National Association of Japanese Canadians’ ( NAJC) Human Rights Committee and the Vancouver & Toronto Chapters of the Association for Learning & Preserving the History of World War II in Asia . , “A Call for Outrage? Furthermore, a “Japanese embassy” [Wakan 和館] belonging to the Sō clan was established in Pusan, Korea, housing between 400 and 500 Japanese engaged in trade or intelligence gathering.50, 36Three points were raised by the Korean government. Consequently, there are currently only two textbooks for the compulsory teaching of Korean history: one for junior high and one for senior high.22, 17Given these circumstances, it is easy for Japanese revisionists to discredit South Korea’s criticisms by presenting them as illustrating the country’s desire to impose its vision of history upon the Japanese.23 However pertinent its demands may be, South Korea undeniably suffers from this comparison to Japan with regards its textbook selection system, a problem of which many Korean historians are also aware.24. Admittedly, the textbook controversy has convinced many Chinese that Japan has still not managed to rid itself of its militarist demons and that this anomaly is liable to recur. 25On this issue, the current editions of Japan’s major textbooks deviate little from the Tsukuru‑kai. 37, Spring‑Summer 2007, pp. From its opening pages the Korean textbook painted a picture of Japan‑Korea relations which basically consisted of two images: on the one hand a Korea that generously introduced its advanced culture to Japan, and on the other, a Japan that repaid Korea with aggression. 2 Although use of the second edition Tsukuru‑kai textbook (2005) increased significantly compared to the firstedition (2001), it remains below 0.5%. 150‑151. Historical negationism, also called denialism, is falsification or distortion of the historical record. Despite vigorous protests from citizen groups, who saw Japan’s claims on Takeshima as a resurgence of Japanese militarism, the Korean government, no doubt keen to avoid poisoning relations between the two countries just a few months ahead of the jointly organised Japan‑Korea World Cup, announced via its Minister for Foreign Affairs that it would defer to the judgement of the “Joint Research Committee on Japanese‑Korean History” (Nikkan Rekishi Kyōdō Kenkyū Iinkai 日韓歴史共同研究委員会).93, 69The government maintained this policy three years later by refraining from reiterating its demands for changes to be made to the Japanese textbooks approved in 2005, including the Tsukuru‑kai text. This system thus gives the Ministry of Education considerable control over the content of textbooks prior to publication. that had insisted on re‑establishing contact, keen as it was to “import Korea’s advanced culture”. few studies have focused on Korean textbooks and how they are perceived by the Japanese. In 2002 the usage rates for these junior high school textbooks were as follows: Tōkyō Shoseki, (New Society, History), Tōkyō Shoseki, 2006. 18 These selection areas, which numbered 591 in 2008, generally consist of two cities (shi 市) or districts (gun 郡). Second, a new Japanese history textbook which was written by right-wing organizations and Yasukuni-jinja will be discussed objectively. ), Sh. In instances where the selection area consists of several municipalities, districts or villages, a deliberation council (. ) The Korean government seems to have understood this, as illustrated by the events of 2002, when the screening process for senior high school history textbooks led the Korean media to denounce new “distortions”, notably the Saishin Nishon‑shi 最新日本史textbook’s claim that the island of Takeshima/Tokto was part of Japan. A revisionist version of Japanese history was officially approved by the Ministry of Education as a History Textbook for Japanese middle school students. 1, Seoul, Chaja, , 2001, p. 282 (this author mentions however the presence of Chinese among 16, , 1993, pp. ), which are compulsory. 63 On the Seikan‑ron and its treatment in Japanese textbooks, see Noriko Berlinguez‑Kōno, “l’Asiatisme au prisme de la mémoire et de l’histoire : le cas de Saigō Takamori entre bellicisme et pacifisme” (Asianism Through the Prism of Memory and History: the Case of Saigō Takamori, from Warmongering to Pacifism), in Japon Pluriel 7, Actes du septième colloque de la Société française des études japonaises (Proceedings from the Seventh SFEJ Symposium), Arles, Picquier, 2007. Silla introduced shipbuilding techniques to Japan as well as techniques for constructing dykes and castles (sŏngkwak). 37 Yi Yŏng 이영, “Waegu ŭi chuch’e” 왜구의 주체 (The Main Constituent of Wakō), in Waegu wisa munje wa Han‑Il kwan’gye 왜구・위사 문제와 한일관계 (Japan‑Korea Relations and the Issue of Wakō and the Pseudo‑Embassies), Seoul, Kyŏng’in Munwhasa 景仁文化社, 2005, p. 192. suggested forcing Korea’s hand through the use of military force. originated predominantly from Japan, and in particular Shikoku and Kyūshū. On the other hand, the previous edition, used between 1997 and 2001, specified that it was the Tokugawa. Below is the version proposed by the Tsukuru‑kai: In 1873 (Meiji 6) a “debate on the Korean expedition” [Seikan‑ron 征韓論] broke out among the samurai. cit., 2001, p. 121. 43The Tsukuru‑kai textbook is not the only Japanese textbook to link the emergence of the Seikan‑ron controversy to Korea’s refusal to “open up”: In 1871 a treaty (Nisshin shūkō jōki 日清修好条規) was signed with the Qing on an equal footing but Korea, which was a tributary state of China, remained closed to Westerners and refused to establish diplomatic relations with the Meiji government. 69 See Awaya Ken’ichi 粟谷憲一, “Kindai gaikō taisei no sōshutsu: Chōsen no baai o chūshin ni” 近代外交体制の創出―朝鮮の場合を中心に (Creation of the Modern Diplomatic System: the Case of Korea), in Arano Yasunori, Ishii Masatoshi and Murai Shōsuke (eds. One of the controversial subjects to concern the majority of Japanese textbooks pertains to the composition of pirate bands known as. Countering Textbook Distortion: War Atrocities in Asia, 1937-1945. Korea refused and for some time feared a retaliatory attack from the Japanese. , “Kuksa ŭi an kwa pakk: hegemoni wa kuksa ŭi taey. Curiously, just like its Japanese counterparts, the Korean textbook devotes little space to explaining why diplomatic relations between the two countries were resumed. This is the case, for example, of the importance attached by Japanese textbooks to world history, thus placing Japanese history in a context that is not solely national and which puts the different points of view into perspective. Given these circumstances, it is easy for Japanese revisionists to discredit South Korea’s criticisms by presenting them as illustrating the country’s desire to impose its vision of history upon the Japanese. While the approval of the Tsukuru‑kai textbook certainly revealed Korea’s extreme sensitivity to historical issues, it has also encouraged a re‑evaluation of Korean history textbooks. Moreover, the portrait it paints places excessive emphasis on the “need” for Japan to annexe Korea, as well as on the positive aspects of colonisation, all the while playing down the negative effects on the Korean people. For a detailed examination of the joint initiatives designed to defuse the history‑related controversies in East Asia, see L. , “Japon, Chine, Corée : vers une conscience historique commune ? cit., p. 358. 77 See Kang Chŏngsuk 姜貞淑, “Ilbon‑gun ‘wianbu’ munje ŭi ponjil kwa Hangugin ŭi insik” 일본군 ‘위안부’ 문제의 본질과 한국인의 인식 (The Nature of the Japanese Army “Comfort Women” Issue and Korean Consciousness), in Hanguk Yŏksa Kyogwasŏ Yŏnguhoe 한국역사교과서연구회 and Ilbon Yŏksa Kyoyuk Yŏnguhoe 일본역사교육연구회 (eds. The previous edition (2001) of the Korean history textbook presented the three kingdoms’ foreign relations as follows: During the time of King Kŭnch’ogo, Ajikki and Wangin travelled to Japan and. cit., p. 213. However, this section entitled “Cultural Transmission and Trade Relations” was left out of the current edition of the Korean textbook (2006). cit., pp. Japanese specialists also emphasise the egalitarian nature of the context in which these embassies were sent. This outcry prompted the Suzuki Zenkō 鈴木善幸 administration to offer an apology and add a so‑called Neighbouring Country Clause (kinrin shokoku jōkō 近隣諸国条項) to the textbook authorisation system stipulating the need to show understanding and seek international harmony when dealing with Asia’s modern and contemporary history. In other words, the envoys’ objective was not to pay tribute to the. The verdict is crystal clear that the Japanese army killed civilians and captives. These changes illustrate an encouraging evolution in Korea. 82 The Korean government sees the use of phrases such as “Yamato lost its influence over the Korean peninsula” (Tōkyō Shoseki) or “subsequently, the influence [of Yamato] over the Korean peninsula waned” (Ōsaka Shoseki) to describe relations between Japan and Korea during the 6th century as unacceptable, for they are based on the “erroneous” idea that Yamato ruled Kaya as of the 4th century. This statement was made in August 1993 by Kōno Yōhei, the Miyazaki administration’s Chief Cabinet S, Despite the gradual disappearance of any mention of “comfort women” in Japanese textbooks, it should be pointed out that this event is hardly the subject of debate among Japanese and Korean historians, with most specialists largely in agreement with the views of Yoshimi Yoshiaki. Examples of this are the joint research conducted since 1997 by the Research Society for History Textbooks (Y, ) and the Research Society for History Education (Rekishi Kyōiku Kenkyū‑kai, as well as the publishing in 2005 of a book edited by Chinese, Japanese and Korean specialists, published. This barbaric practice began in the early 1930s and continued until the defeat of the Japanese Empire in 1945.79, 57Despite the gradual disappearance of any mention of “comfort women” in Japanese textbooks, it should be pointed out that this event is hardly the subject of debate among Japanese and Korean historians, with most specialists largely in agreement with the views of Yoshimi Yoshiaki. Japan's education ministry announced on Monday all 18 new social studies textbooks that are authorized for use in the country's junior high schools from April next year. Whether real or imagined, this fear is fuelled by incidents such as the approval of the Tsukuru‑kai textbook or the prime ministerial visits to Yasukuni Shrine, which are seen as warning signs of a possible remilitarisation of Japan.98, 75Despite the joint endeavours aiming to reduce the differences of opinion, voices in both countries question the pertinence of efforts aimed at building a shared historical consciousness. It forcibly recruited Koreans to work in harsh conditions in mines and factories, and set up a system for conscripting and mobilising students as voluntary soldiers, . However, the motives of some authors can be questioned when they seek to use their criticisms of Korean textbooks to present the Tsukuru‑kai text as a model textbook. In doing so they were violating the Neighbouring Country Clause and going against the spirit of the statements made by prime ministers Murayama Tomiichi. SEOUL - It was anticipated that the Japanese government would authorize the publication of eight kinds of revised history textbooks, including the most controversial one authored by a right-wing scholars’ group, called the Association to Make New Textbooks. 46Although in its criticism the Korean government placed responsibility for Korea’s refusal to “open up” with the Meiji leaders’ decision to unilaterally break off the historically friendly relations between the two countries, it did not specify in what way the Japanese request to establish new diplomatic ties undermined Japanese‑Korean relations. See Na Haengju 나행주, “6 segi Han‑Il kwangwe ŭi yŏngu‑sajŏk kŏmt’o” 6세기 한일관계의 연구사적 검토 (An Examination of the History of Research into Japan‑Korea Relations in the 6th Century), in Imna munje wa Han‑Il kwan’gye 임나 문제와 한일관계 (Imna and Japan‑Korea Relations), Seoul, Kyŏng’in Munwhasa 景仁文化社, 2005, pp. The same variety of opinions can be found in Korea, in addition to a few more original theories: these include Kim Sŏkhyŏng, who in the 1960s claimed that the Nihon‑fu was located in Japan and not on the Korean peninsula, or Ch’ŏn Kwanu and Kim Hyŏngu, for whom this organ was a sort of headquarters of the Paekche army stationed in Kaya. This led the Ministry of Education to gradually relax its criteria for authorisation throughout the 1970s. 57 Miyake Hidetoshi 三宅英利, Kinsei nihon to Chōsen 近世日本と朝鮮 (Japan and Korea in the Early Modern Era), Kōdansha 講談社, 2006, p. 162. in reality selects the textbooks, with the various municipal education boards merely ratifying their decision. See Chunghakkyo Kuksa, op. . During the time of King Kŭnch’ogo, Ajikki and Wangin travelled to Japan and introduced the Chinese script (hanmun), the Analects of Confucius and the Qianziwen. cit., p. 283) is far more factual than the Korean textbook and devotes little space to Hideyoshi’s unknown motives. After a two-month-long review of South Korea's demands for revisions, Japan informed Seoul that it would revise only two of the 35 disputed passages. Some Korean scholars have accompanied this re‑evaluation with a more balanced examination of the way history is taught in Japan. As in Japan, it was in the mid‑1990s (1994 for senior high school textbooks and 1996 for junior high school) that the term “comfort women for the Japanese Army” (Ilbon‑gun wianbu 日本軍慰安婦) made an appearance in Korean textbooks77. However, the motives of some authors can be questioned when they seek to use their criticisms of Korean textbooks to present the Tsukuru‑kai text as a model textbook.15. The Third World Congress of Education International, meeting in Jomtien, Thailand, from 25 to 29 July, 2001: 1. Nevertheless, this project is a tangible sign of the efforts undertaken in the three countries to move beyond the overly simplistic framework of “national histories”. ), Shūei‑sha, New Perspectives on Japan's Performing Arts, The Invention of “Folk Crafts”: Yanagi Sōetsu and, Cipango – French Journal of Japanese Studies. While the Tōkyō Shoseki remains slighter vaguer by noting that “the. See Han‑Il kwan’gye sahakhoe, (Korea and Japan: A History of Distortions and Complexes), Seoul, Chaja, Two details were modified in the second edition (2006): “maintained relations” was replaced by “established relations”; “between 400 and” was removed (, Chosŏn sidae t’ongsinsa yŏngu ŭi hyŏnguang kwa kwaje, (Research Themes and Current State of Research on the Chosŏn‑Period Communication Envoys), (Communication Envoys, Japanese Embassy and Japan‑Korea Relations), Seoul, Kyŏng’in Munhwasa, (Japan and Korea in the Early Modern Era), Kōdansha, and its treatment in Japanese textbooks, see Noriko Berlinguez‑Kōno, “l’Asiatisme au prisme de la mémoire et de l’histoire : le cas de Saigō Takamori entre bellicisme et pacifisme, ” (Asianism Through the Prism of Memory and History: the Case of, Saigō Takamori, from Warmongering to Pacifism, Japon Pluriel 7, Actes du septième colloque de la Société française des études japonaises, (Proceedings from the Seventh SFEJ Symposium), , 2001, p. 66): “Since the Meiji Restoration, Japan had put in place a new political regime and in order to increase its influence had requested that Korea enter into negotiations. ), Chōsen no rekishi 朝鮮の歴史, Sansei‑dō 三省堂, 1995, pp. 12 Toriumi Yasushi 鳥海靖, Nichūkanror Rekishi kyōkasho wa konna ni chigau 日中韓露歴史教科書はこんなに違う (The Huge Divergences between Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Russian History Textbooks), Tokyo, Fusōsha 扶桑社, 2005, p. 83. Deprived of the satisfaction of having recovered their independence by their own means, the Koreans found themselves victors of the Second World War without the benefits. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/cjs/968 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/cjs.968. Thirdly, by omitting to point out that it was Korea that had established a “Japanese embassy” in Pusan, the authors were deceiving readers into believing that Japan had set up an administrative organ overseas on its own initiative. ), Han‑Chung‑Il yŏksa insik kwa Ilbon kyokwasŏ 한중일 역사인식과 일본교과서 (Korean, Chinese and Japanese Conceptions of History and Japanese Textbooks), Seoul, Yŏksa Pip’yŏngsa역사 비평사, 2002, p. 209. 22 Chunghakkyo Kuksa 중학교 국사 (National History, Junior High), Seoul, Kyohaksa 교학사, 2006. However, the biased view presented by the Tsuruku‑kai textbook is rarely shared by other Japanese texts. A large number of Japanese historians and educators protested against the content of New History Textbook and its treatment of Japanese wartime activities. On the other hand, responsibility for choosing textbooks at public schools (, ), which are grouped according to selection areas (, ), lies with the Municipal Boards of Education (Shichōson Kyōiku Iinkai, ). While the Chinese can pride themselves on having triumphed militarily over their Japanese invaders —a victory that was no doubt partly responsible for Mao Zedong’s magnanimous attitude in waiving his demands for a war indemnity—, the Koreans owe their liberation to the military intervention of the Allies. On the other hand, Han Ugŭn (op. 56In the subsequent edition (2006) this passage was modified as follows: The Japanese Empire also took women, who were exploited in so‑called battalions of workers for the homeland [kŭllo pogugtae 勤労報国隊] or battalions of female volunteers. Their conclusions are then sent to the education boards of the various municipalities, which take them into account when making their final decision. Chungse Koryŏ Ilbon kwan’gye ŭi chaengchŏm: Monggol ŭi Ilbon ch’imnyak kwa Waegu, Korean scholars refute this theory. Open its doors insulting Japanese and Korean perspectives the prime of their lives, on..., it also more generally pertained to the Sō clan was established in Pusan carried out by television... Senshi kara gendai made, but also the survey carried out by the television channel nationalist discourse a domestic within... Hiroshi 三谷博, Yang Daqing 楊大慶 ( eds Decline of Nationalism textbook Raises Concerns Asia Today, 10 July.! Established in Pusan at comfort stations for the damage inflicted on Korea ( many,... Contested in recent years in Britain, the lack of explanation concerning Ieyasu ’ s textbooks. 200,000 soldiers the, reaction to the to my attention the Army setting! 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